State Progress

State Number of Participants Number of Water Samples Collected Number of communities tested
Arizona

207

207

11

Colorado

205

125

1

New Mexico

283

218

4

Utah

365

124

19

Published State Reports

Published State Reports

Utah Health Status Update, January 2018.

Descriptive Statistics for Metals

Descriptive Statistics for Metals

Notes for all Tables

  • MCL is the "maximum contaminate level." An MCL is a health-based regulatory level set by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water contaminates.
  • SMCL is a secondary maximum contaminate level. An SMCL is a non-enforceable guideline regulating contaminants that may cause cosmetic effects (e.g., skin or took discoloration) or palatability effects (taste, odor, or color of the water) in drinking water.
  • NHANES is the “National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey” conducted periodically by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NHANES is considered a representative sample of the U.S. population. The NHANES 95th percentile value is the concentration used as a benchmark for unusual exposure. 95% of the NHANES participants have levels below that concentration and 5% of the participants have levels above that concentration. The state members of the consortium are using age-specific NHANES 95% values from the 2011-2012 report based on program and policy decisions of that state.
  • μg/L means micrograms (or 10-6 grams) of contaminant per liter of water. This unit is equivalent to parts-per-billion (ppb). A liter of water is approximately equivalent to 2 pints or about 1/4 of a gallon.
  • ug/g means micrograms (or 10-6 grams) of contaminant per gram of urine creatinine. These values have been corrected for urine creatinine concentration (indicated by the level of creatinine in the urine).
  • IQR is a range of values useful for showing the distribution of sample metal levels around the median level. The IQR can be interpreted as 50% of the samples had measured metal levels within this range, 25% of the samples had levels lower than this range, and 25% of the samples had levels higher than this range.
  • ND the statistic is not-determined because most or all of the samples resulted in non-detectable levels.

 

Water Samples
Measure
Threshold of Concern (μg/L)[see note for MCL and SMCL] 10 5 50 2 50 30
Number of Samples for Consortium 269 269 257 257 269 243
Number of Samples with Measurable Levels 204 (75.8%) 6 (2.2%) 97 (36.1%) 2 (0.8%) 71 (26.4%) 142 (58.4%)
Number of Samples with Levels above Threshold of Concern 31 (11.5%) 0 12 (4.5%) 0 0 3 (1.2%)
Arithmetic Mean Level (μg/L) 6.01 0.14 15.54 0.08 1.38 3.22
Sample 95th Percentile (μg/L) 17.16 0.25 30.56 0.13 4.40 12.70

 

Urine Samples
Measure
NHANES 95th Pecentile for All Population (μg/g) [see note NHANES] 50.4 0.907 0.548 1.75 0.029
NHANES 95th Pecentile for Children (μg/g) [see note NHANES] 91.2 0.235 0.633 1.62 0.031
NHANES 95th Pecentile for Adults (μg/g) [see note NHANES] 49.7 0.977 0.545 1.95 0.029
Number of Samples for Consortium 533 424 424 533 316 533
Number of Samples with Measurable Levels 431 (80.(%) 277 (65.3%) 216 (50.9%) 317 (59.5%) 313 (99.1%) 306 (57.4%)
Number of Samples with Levels above NHANES 95th Percentile 20 (3.8%) 113 (26.7%) 125 (29.5%) 13 (2.4%) 20 (3.8%)
Geometric Mean Level (μg/g) 8.6 0.360 0.341 0.26 41.6 0.019
IQR Range (μg/g) 4.25
17.18
0.151
0.544
0.154
0.647
0.152
0.456
37.1
81.8
0.009
0.031

Descriptive Statistics for Phthalates

Descriptive Statistics for Phathalates

Notes for all Tables

  • Phthalates are a class of compounds that are similar in their structure and nature. Phthalates are used in the manufacturing of plastics to make the plastics stronger and flexible. Phthalates are also used in the manufacturing of other household products such as some kinds of cosmetics. There are many different kinds of phthalate compounds in the class of phthalates.
  • Parent compounds are forms of phthalates that are found in the environment outside our bodies. Phthalate parent compounds are found in many kinds of plastics and other household products.
  • Metabolites are forms of chemicals that have entered into our bodies and undergone chemical changes. Metabolites are formed when the parent compound comes into contact with enzymes in our bodies during a process known as metabolism. Metabolism is a process where compounds are changed to either get energy out of them (such as the metabolism of sugars and fats) or to make new compounds that our bodies need to grow and stay healthy. Often compounds like phthalates can be metabolized using different enzymes which results in different metabolites. That is why some parent compounds have more than one metabolite associated with them.
  • NHANES is the “National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey” conducted periodically by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The NHANES is considered a representative sample of the U.S. population. The NHANES 95th percentile value is the concentration used as a benchmark for "high" exposure. The 95% of the NHANES participants have levels below that concentration and 5% of the participants have levels above that concentration. The state members of the consortium are using age-specific NHANES 95% values from the 2011-2012 report based on program and policy decisions of that state.
  • ug/g means micrograms (or 10-6) of contaminant per gram of urine creatinine. These values have been corrected for urine creatinine concentration (indicated by the level of creatinine in the urine).
  • IQR is a range of values useful for showing the distribution of sample phthalate metabolite levels around the median level. The IQR can be interpreted as 50% of the samples had measured metabolite levels within this range, 25% of the samples had levels lower than this range, and 25% of the samples had levels higher than this range.

 

Metabolite
Number of Participants Tested
Percent of Participants with Detectable Levels
Percent of Participants with Levels above the NHANES 95th Percentile Level
Geometric Mean Level Among All Participants in ug/g
Interquartile Range (IQR) in ug/g
Parent Compound: benzylbutyl phthalate
mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) 505 81.4% 5.3% 3.71 1.78 - 7.20
Parent Compound: dibutyl phthalate & di-isobutyl phthalate
mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) 505 89.3% 3.6% 9.61 5.75 - 15.80
mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) 505 92.3% 4.6% 7.23 4.40 - 12.15
Parent Compound: diethyl phthalate
mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) 505 100% 1.6% 28.06 12.16 - 53.95
Parent Compound: dimethyl phthalate
mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) 505 48.3% 4.0% 1.59 0.78 - 3.31
Parent Compound: benzylbutyl phthalate
mono-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (MEHP) 505 30.3% 1.8% 0.91 0.35 - 2.07
mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) 505 99.2% 4.8% 7.49 4.65 - 12.23
mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP) 505 99.2% 4.6% 4.66 2.85 - 7.57
mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate (MECPP) 505 99.6% 1.6% 9.31 5.50 - 14.95
Parent Compound: di-isononyl phthalate & di-isodecyl phthalate
mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP) 505 0% 0% Not detected Not detected
mono-(carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP) 505 87.8% 0.40% 2.05 0.87 - 4.87
mono-(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP) 505 17.4% 0% 0.69 0.31 - 1.54
Parent Compound: di-n-octyl phthalate
mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) 505 0.2% 0% Insufficent Detection Insufficent Detection
mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) 505 79.0% 1.2% 0.98 0.54 - 1.70
Parent Compound: di-isonoyl cyclohexane-1,2-di-carboxylate
cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-monocarboxy isooctyl ester (MCOCH) 292 8.2% No NHANES Reference Values 0.29 0.13 - 0.53
cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(hydroxy-isononyl) ester (NHNCH) 292 8.2% No NHANES Reference Values 0.29 0.13 - 0.50

 

NHANES Reference Values

Metabolite
NHANES 95th Percentile Level for US Children (ug/g)
NHANES 95th Percentile Level for US Adults (ug/g)
NHANES 95th percentile Level for US Total Population (ug/g)
Parent Compound: benzylbutyl phthalate
mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) 81 21.6 26.7
Parent Compound: dibutyl phthalate & di-isobutyl phthalate
mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) 73.3 36.2 41.2
mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) 46.4 25.2 27.5
Parent Compound: diethyl phthalate
mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) 177 634/td> 541
Parent Compound: dimethyl phthalate
mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) 30.2 9.31 11.0
Parent Compound: benzylbutyl phthalate
mono-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (MEHP) 7.15 8.49 8.47
mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) 58.1 32.0 37.7
mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP) 34.5 19.3 23.4
mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate (MECPP) 59.8 84.4 53.7
Parent Compound: di-isononyl phthalate & di-isodecyl phthalate
mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP) 7.88 18.1 17.6
mono-(carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP) 161 194 194
mono-(carboxynonyl) phthalate (MCNP) 14.7 14.9 14.6
Parent Compound: di-n-octyl phthalate
mono-n-octyl phthalate (MOP) 6.3 5.93 5.93
mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) 28.2 36.2 36.6
Parent Compound: di-isonoyl cyclohexane-1,2-di-carboxylate
cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-monocarboxy isooctyl ester (MCOCH) No NHANES Reference Values
cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid-mono(hydroxy-isononyl) ester (NHNCH) No NHANES Reference Values

Last update: March 21, 2018